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  • Inflammatory process of the bladder
  • Can be caused by infection (most common), radiation, medications (such as Cyclophasphamide). Eosinophilic cystitis also possible.
  • Radiographic features: Mucosal thickening, reduced bladder capacity, standing of perivesical fat

Bacterial Cystitis:

  • Acute:
    • Pathogens in Bacterial cystitis: E. Coli >Staphylococcus > Streptoccus > Pseudomonas   
    • Predisposing factors: Instrumentation, trauma, bladder outlet obstruction, neurogenic bladder, calculus, tumor
      • Chronic Cystitis: results from repeated bacterial infections due to such causes as reflux, diverticulum, bladder outlet obstruction
        • Emphysematous Cystitis: results from infection (most commonly E. coli.) that causes gas within the bladder and bladder wall
        • Predisposing diseases: Diabetes mellitus, long-standing urinary obstructio
        • Tuberculosis: chronic interstitial cystitis that usually ends in fibrosis. Typically coexists with renal TB
        • Schistosomiasis:
        • Caused by S. haematobium. Infected humans excrete eggs in urinary tract; eggs become trapped in mucosa causing severe granulomatous reaction
        • Radiographic features: extensive calcifications in bladder wall and ureter (hallmark), inflammatory pseudopolyps, ureteral strictures, SCC
        • Other types of Cystitis: Radiation cystitis, Eosinophilic cystitis, Interstitial cystitis

        Another example (this form cyclophosphamide)
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        Another example (hemorrhagic cystitis)

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        These signals are relayed buying clomid online safe which then is by a number of such as medial preoptic and paraventricular nulcei.