Digital Radiography News

Adjusting MRI to Track Creatine Could Detect Heart Problems Earlier…

Based on a new study conducted by researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, a new MRI technique to map and track creatine at higher resolutions in the heart may enable clinicians and scientists to discover abnormalities and disorders earlier than standard diagnostic methods. The preclinical findings reveal an advantage over less sensitive tests and point to a safer and more cost-effective approach than those with radioactive or contrasting agents. Creatine is a naturally occurring metabolite that helps distribute energy to all cells through creatine kinase reaction, including those involved in contraction of the heart. When heart tissue becomes damaged from a loss of blood supply, even in the very early stages, creatine levels drop. Researchers utilized this process in a large animal model with a method known as CEST, or chemical exchange saturation transfer, which measures exact molecules in the body, to track the creatine on an area basis. The team, led professor of Radiology and director of the Center for Magnetic Resonance and Optical Imaging at Penn Medicine, by Ravinder Reddy, PhD, discovered that imaging creatine through CEST MRI offers higher resolution as opposed to basic magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), a commonly used method for measuring creatine. However, its poor resolution makes it difficult to conclude precisely which regions of the heart have been compromised. "Measuring creatine with CEST is a promising technique that has the potential to improve clinical decision making while treating patients with heart disorders and even other diseases, as well as spotting problems sooner. Beyond the sensitivity benefits and its advantage over MRS, CEST doesn't require radioactive or contrast agents used in MRI, which can have adverse effects on patients, particularly those with kidney disease, and add to costs,” said Reddy. Currently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based stress tests are also used to spot dead heart tissue, which is the warning sign of future problems (coronary artery disease, for example), yet its reach is limited. MRI is often combined with contrast agents to help light up problem areas, however it is often not sensitive enough to find ischemic (but not yet infarcted) regions with deranged metabolism. "After a heart attack, different regions of the heart are damaged at different rates. This new technique will allow us to very precisely study regional changes that occur in the heart after heart attacks, enabling us to identify and treat patients at risk for developing heart failure before symptoms develop," said professor of Surgery, and director of Cardiac Surgical Research at Penn Medicine, and study co-author, Robert C. Gorman, MD. To showcase CEST's ability to detect heart disease, the researchers implemented the creatine CEST approach in an MRI scanner, in healthy and infarcted myocardium (muscle tissue in heart) in large animals. During the process, the nuclear magnetization of amine (NH2) creatine protons is saturated by a radiofrequency pulse from the MRI. After the exchange with water, the degree of saturation is observed as the water signal drops, and therefore the concentration of creatine becomes apparent (In the body, creatine is converted to creatinine, which can be measured through blood and urine tests and is an important tool for assessing renal function). The team demonstrated that the creatine CEST method can record changes in creatine levels, and point out infarcted areas in heart muscle tissue, just as MRS methods can. However, they found, CEST has two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than MRS. “That advantage could help spot smaller damaged areas in the heart missed by traditional methods,” the authors noted. Furthermore, the team used CEST to map increases in creatine over time by imaging human subjects as they flexed their calves while inside an MRI scanner to demonstrate the technology's ability to effectively track the molecule. “The method can also be used to investigate alterations in normal heart function that are also seen in many other types of non-ischemic heart disease, such as abnormal cardiac hypertrophy, as well as disorders in the brain,” said Reddy. "Though at much lower levels than in the heart, creatine levels change in the brain when abnormalities arise. Given the heightened resolution of this technique, this presents an opportunity for studying brain disorders with deranged creatine metabolism without the use of contrast agents as well,” he added. CEST has been employed to image tissue pH, map proteins and specific gene expression, but this is the first time to the authors' knowledge it has been used to study heart tissue. "The ability to visualize heart muscle viability at high-resolution without radiation exposure or the injection of a contrast agent is a significant advancement. It could allow doctors to detect small areas of damaged heart tissue early in the course of a disease, when treatments are most likely to be effective," said Christina Liu, PhD, who oversees funding for molecular imaging research by the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), part of the National Institutes of Health. Findings of the study have since been published online in Nature ... Read more

Advanced RT for Neck and Head Cancer May be Better …

Patients with head and neck cancer who are treated with an advanced form of radiation therapy may experience fewer side effects and be less likely to die from their disease as opposed to patients who receive standard radiation therapy. This discovery comes from an analytical study published early online in Cancer, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society. The study sets up so-called intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) as both a safe and beneficial treatment for patients with head and neck cancer. Patients with head and neck cancer usually undergo radiation treatments, which can cause major side effects including dry mouth, difficulty swallowing, and bone destruction. Research has shown that IMRT, an advanced radiation procedure that is designed to treat tumors while sparing normal tissues, can result in less dry mouth and dental problems than traditional radiation; however, studies have not yet determined how IMRT affects patients' overall survival. To investigate the matter further, Beth Beadle, MD, PhD, of the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, and her team analyzed a large database of 3172 patients treated for head and neck cancer at different clinics across the United States between 1999 and 2007. After a mid-point follow-up time of 40 months, 84.1 percent of patients treated with IMRT had not died from cancer, as opposed to 66.0 percent of patients treated with standard radiation. Analyzing each anatomic subsite on its own, all respective subgroups of patients treated with IMRT had better overall survival than those treated with traditional radiation. "This analysis revealed that patients treated with IMRT have less cancer-related deaths than those treated with traditional techniques. So, not only do they have fewer side effects, but they also have fewer life-threatening recurrences," said Beadle. “The research has important relevance to national discussions of health care delivery and health care policy because IMRT is more expensive than traditional radiation therapy. An investment in IMRT may be cost-effective because it is better at both preventing side effects and cancer recurrence," she explained. However, Beadle notes that more research is required in order to confirm the findings of the ... Read more

Steady Treatments of Radiation Help Ease Pain of Bone …

According to a new study, patients with painful bone metastases are likely to benefit from a second round of analgesic radiation, irrespective of treatment schedule and/or plan. Around half of patients treated with either 8 Gy in a single ... Read more


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Based on a recent study, a UT Arlington chemist doing National Science Foundation-funded research on enzymes that standardize human biology has discovered certain traits and qualities that could be used to distinguish predisposition to conditions such as heart disease, diabetic ulcers and some types of cancer. Assistant professor of chemistry/biochemistry at The University of Texas at Arlington, Brad Pierce, assembled and led a team of researchers that studied and analyzed an oxygen utilizing iron enzyme called cysteine dioxygenase or CDO, which is located in high levels within the heart, liver, and brain tissues. Enzymes are proteins that serve as catalysts to allow metabolic functions, however, under certain circumstances these oxygen-dependent enzymes can also generate highly toxic side products known as reactive oxygen species or ROS. For the very first time, Pierce's team discovered that mutations outside the CDO active site setting or "outer coordination sphere" have a significant impact on the release of ROS. Surplus ROS has been tied to several age-onset human disease states. "Most research in the past has focused on the active site inner coordination sphere of these enzymes, where the metal molecule is located. What we're finding is that it's really the second sphere that regulates the efficiency of the enzyme. In essence, these interactions hold everything together during catalysis. When this process breaks down, the enzyme ends up spitting out high levels of ROS and increasing the likelihood of disease,” said Pierce. Pierce trusts that the team’s findings from the CDO enzyme could be implemented into other oxygen-dependent enzymes, which constitute of up to about 20 percent of the enzymes in the human body. "In principle, these findings could be extended to better understand how other enzymes within the class generate ROS and potentially be used to screen for genetic dispositions for ROS-related diseases," he said. Pierce's research introduces a whole new level of detail to enzyme study through the use of electron paramagnetic resonance or EPR, a technology that very much resembles the magnetic resonance imaging or MRI used in the medical field. In fall 2012, the National Science Foundation awarded Pierce a three-year, $300,000 grant to study enzymes that are catalysts for the oxidation of sulfur-bearing molecules in the body. "Dr. Pierce's research is a good example of how basic science can set a path toward discoveries that affect human health. We look forward to his continued exploration of these findings," said dean of the UT Arlington College of Science, Pamela Jansma. The study was published by the American Chemical Society journal Biochemistry. Pierce is registered as the corresponding author on the paper, with UT Arlington students Wei Li, Michael D. Pecore and Joshua K. Crowell as co-authors. Co-author Elizabeth J. Blaesi is a graduate research assistant at the University of ... Read more

Elastography Method Helps Determine Liver Fibrosis…

A noninvasive method visualizes and quantitatively measures tissue rigidity across the different stages of fibrosis leading up to cirrhosis. The Aixplorer Ultrasound System with ShearWave Elastography (SWE) can help determine quantitative liver rigidity values in a user-friendly manner, which can be safely renacted over time to document and follow disease progression or regression. Ultrasonic shear-wave elastography is a form of vibrational wave analysis, comparable to that of a seismograph during earthquakes. The main shockwave that proliferates through the earth is a longitudinal wave, like that of ultrasound imaging, which runs along the direction of the wave. The secondary wave is a sloping wave that transmits by at right angles to the direction of the wave. These are also called shear waves or elastic shear waves. Shear waves are commonly used in nondestructive testing for flaws in manufactured materials, such as cracks. The system is predicated on proprietary MultiWave technology, which images two kinds of waves to better categorize tissue; an ultrasound wave to gaurantee image quality, and a shear wave to compute and display true tissue rigidity in real time. Broadband technology delivers extremely high-resolution tissue harmonic imaging, which considerably diminshes image artifacts and offers better contrast resolution. The Aixplorer also provides advanced and comprehensive Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) solutions for detection, characterization, and monitoring of solid tumors, especially in the liver and abdomen. The blended mixture of CEUS and SWE enhance the comparison of blood flow in the microcirculation with the mechanical and structural elements of tissue, providing more diagnostic information. Exact measurements of liver rigidity are delivered in kilopascals (kPa); since liver rigidity increases with the severity of fibrosis, the measurement is telling of the degree of chronic liver injury in cirrhosis and hepatitis C patients. The diagnostic information can help elicit medical treatment, help to assess the progress and effectiveness of drug therapy, and provide routine imaging monitoring for complications. When invasive procedures are required, the Aixplorer’s image quality is effective in assisting hepatologists and radiologists with ultrasound guided liver procedures such as needle placement for biopsy and paracentesis. The Aixplorer Ultrasound System is a product of SuperSonic Imagine (Aix-en-Provence, France). “Several clinical studies have concluded that ShearWave Elastography is an accurate, reproducible technique to assess liver disease. The impact of ShearWave Elastography in liver imaging, both in clinical and economic terms, cannot be underestimated. This technology will enable a major shift in patient management,” said  CEO of SuperSonic Imagine, Jacques ... Read more

Lung Cancer Screening Tool Proven to Save Lives…

Based on the results of a recent study, health care professionals are doing everything in their power to let Butte County smokers, who are at risk for contracting lung cancer know that there is a screening tool that could potentially save their lives. Results of the study verified that using low-dose computer tomography (CT), generally referred to as a "CAT" scan, can enable physicians to detect lung cancer in at-risk past or present smokers. The National Lung Screening Trial, sponsored by the National Cancer Institute, recently testified an annual low-dose CT scan of the chest of patients who are high-risk for lung cancer, can save their lives. The research confirms that 1-in-100 high-risk individuals involved in the study were found to have lung cancer on the first screening, according to a fact sheet put together by public relations coordinator for North State Radiology in Chico, Tracie Fox. One life was saved for every 320 high-risk people screened three times with the low-dose CT scan over two years. The study's outcomes resulted in a lung cancer-specific mortality benefit, or increased survival rate, compared to annual screening by X-ray. “The study shows the scan can save lives,” said diagnostic radiologist and clinic director at North State Radiology, Dr. Ata Alijani. "For a screening to be able to save lives is great. The fact that the studies have shown that you can save lives and decrease the mortality rates by 20 percent; that's really big. That's unheard of for a screening test." According to The National Comprehensive Cancer Network, ‘the annual low-dose CT scan is a screening tool proven to benefit high-risk individuals.’ These at-risk people are outlined as 55-74 years old, current smokers or past smokers who quit within the last 15 years, and those who have smoked the equivalent of one pack of cigarettes a day for a period of 30 years. “By utilizing the low-dose CT scan as a lung cancer screening tool, the trial found several tumors that weren't destined to be found,” said lung cancer specialist, UC San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, Dr. Matthew Gubens. “By using a lower dose of radiation, thousands of patients can be screened annually for such potentially dangerous and possibly cancerous tumors,” he said. “North State Radiology has had the CT-scanner utilized for this screening test for four years. The screening tool allows radiologists, technicians and physicians to acquire the same detail information about the lungs with modifying and decreasing the radiation dose to the patient,” added Alijani. Ever since the study trial generated such gripping mortality rates, physicians like Dr. Erik Stickney, a radiation oncologist at Enloe Regional Cancer Center, want to do all they can to get the word out to at-risk smokers who are eligible for the test. “This imaging gives patients a better idea of what is going on. The study discovered this tool can reduce the number of deaths and increase the survival rates in patients. If we can detect them early, we do much better than detecting them later. There is an 80 to 90 percent survival rate if the cancer is discovered in its early stages. The chance of survival decreases to 10 to 25 percent chance for a cure when it goes past the lymph nodes. The cancer is incurable if it gets to the point where it has spread to the bones or parts of the brain,” he said. Alijani describes the scanning process as simple, explaining that the patient comes in, gets on the scanner, takes a deep breath, the scan happens, and that's it. Radiologists will usually have results sent to the person's physician within 24 hours. “Patients who are interested in getting the scan must be referred by their physician before calling the clinic. A North Valley Imaging representative will contact the patient when the referral is approved,” said Fox. “Some insurance companies will cover the cost of the scan, especially if the patient fits the at-risk criteria. Medicare and Medi-Cal, California's Medicare program, aren't currently paying for the scan, but it may be an approved tool early this year because of changes implemented by the Affordable Care Act, which allows patients to have access to evidence-based care,” noted Alijani. "I think one good thing about the Affordable Care Act is that it is trying to let patients have access to evidence-based care. Medicare said that if the data is there, then people will have access to this care. These are all approved treatments," added Gubens. Indeed Fox mentions that patients without insurance can pay out of their pocket for the scan at $375 ... Read more

USPSTF Solidifies its Recommendations for Lung Cancer …

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has officially announced that annual low-dose CT screening for lung cancer is recommended for high-risk individuals. The final grade B recommendation for adults ages 55 through 79 with a 30 pack-year history of smoking or who have quit in the past 15 years met the draft recommendations released in July. The only changes based on comments received during the public comment period were that smoking cessation was more significantly highlighted as a part of screening programs and the description of the suitable patient population was moved to the top of the document. "It's very clear that the best way to prevent lung cancer deaths is to quit smoking. So we have that emphasized much more significantly, particularly in the section called clinical considerations, to make sure people don't think this is an excuse to keep smoking,” explained task force co-vice chair Michael L. LeFevre, MD, MSPH, of the University of Missouri in Columbia. The draft had included in the clinical considerations section a recommendation in opposition to screening individuals with significant comorbidity, particularly those nearing the age cutoff of 80. The final recommendation, published online in Annals of Internal Medicine, stated that into the initial description of the screening recommendation and repeated it again in the main body of the document. "Screening should be discontinued once a person has not smoked for 15 years or develops a health problem that substantially limits life expectancy or the ability or willingness to have curative lung surgery," it said. A following editorial called the recommendations important, but warned that the USPTF left out many of the sensible aspects of applying a lung cancer screening program, as for instance what to do with people who want to be screened, but do not meet the given criteria. “These people have reasons for their concerns; turning them away because they do not meet the criteria does not provide them the reassurance they seek," argued Frank C. Detterbeck, MD, of Yale University, and Michael Unger, MD, of the Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia. Other problematic concerns are how to involve primary care physicians who may do the immensity of referring and determining who, when, and how to treat screen-detected cancer, they mentioned. "This is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. But it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning of screening for lung cancer," Detterbeck and Unger wrote. LeFevre predicted that these screening programs have quickly sprouted across the nation, and the USPSTF recommendation should be able to give centers a bigger boost by leading to reimbursement. “The Affordable Care Act mandates that private insurers cover without co-pay or deductible services the task force grants an "A" or a "B" recommendation. However, Medicare won't be required to cover such services,” Peter B. Bach, MD, MAPP, of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York City, noted in a second editorial. Bach also criticized the lack of distinction of truly high-risk individuals within the screened population. Overall, screening had "only moderate certainty of a moderate net benefit," yet the number required to screen to prevent a lung cancer death differed across the screened population, from 161 in the highest risk to 5,276 in the lowest risk participants in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), which constituted the main basis for the recommendations. "Perhaps the high-risk group should have qualified for an 'A'; perhaps the latter should get only a 'C,' a service that should be only selectively offered," Bach suggested. He also criticized the group's extrapolation beyond the trial data. "On the basis of models, the Task Force chose to lengthen the duration of screening to a maximum of 26 years and increase the upper age of eligibility for screening to 80 years, even though NLST participants were screened for only 3 years and were ineligible to enroll if they were older than 74 years (only 8.8% of participants were ages 70 years or older at enrollment)," he pointed out. "This may be appropriate, but here, too, the grading of this extrapolation should match the low level of evidence supporting it," Bach ... Read more

New MRI Method Illustrates Wrist in Motion…

UC Davis radiologists, medical physicists, and orthopaedic surgeons have discovered a way to create "movies" of the wrist in motion using a series of brief magnetic resonance imaging scans called "Active MRI," the method could be useful in diagnosing hard to spot changes in physiology that allude to the onset of conditions such as wrist instability. The results of the team's first test of the new method have since been published online in the journal PLoS ONE. "These fast images are like a live-action movie. The movie can be slowed, stopped or even reversed as needed. Now patients can reproduce the motion that's bothering them while they're inside the scanner, and physicians can assess how the wrist is actually working. After all, some patients only have pain or other symptoms with movement,” said professor of radiology at UC Davis and lead author of the study, Robert Boutin “Wrist instability,’ explained senior author and assistant professor of radiology at UC Davis, Abhijit Chaudhari, ‘occurs when carpal bones become misaligned and affect joint function, often as a result of trauma that injures the ligaments between wrist bones. It causes abnormal mobility and chronic pain that can lead to osteoarthritis, a major socio-economic burden to patients and health-care systems. Good outcomes in managing the condition are more likely with early diagnosis, when less-invasive treatments are possible.” Techniques such as dynamic computed tomography and fluoroscopy can image the moving wrist, but these methods involve radiation and do not illuminate soft tissue such as ligaments, a key part of the wrist's intricate structure, as well as MRI scans. "MRI scans provide detailed anatomical information of wrist structures without using ionizing radiation, but they cannot help diagnose problems with bone or tendon position that are best seen when the wrist is moving. Active-MRI provides a detailed and 'real time' view of the kinesiology of the wrist in action using a widely available and safe technology,” said Chaudhari. The researchers had to trounce over a number of obstacles in adapting MRI capabilities to providing moving images. A complete MRI exam usually takes 30 to 45 minutes, with each image set requiring at least three minutes, not nearly quick enough to make a video. The team produced a new MRI protocol that takes one image every 0.5 seconds, delivering a series of images in half a minute. Another hurdle was the existence of imaging errors called banding artifacts. Movement of the bones in the wrist area can interfere with the scanner's magnetic field, creating signal drop-offs. The resulting dark bands can distort the moving wrist. The team dealt with this problem by using dielectric pads, which stabilize the magnetic field and shift objects away from the area of interest and to the side, enabling doctors to clearly see the wrist bones. For the current study, Active-MRI was tested on 15 wrists of 10 subjects with no symptoms of wrist problems. The participants' wrists were imaged as they performed motions such as clenching the fist, rotating the wrist and waving the hand side-to-side. Each exam lasted ten minutes. "It's quite phenomenal that we can look inside the body while it's in action using MRI. Routine MRI provides exquisite details, but only if the body is completely motionless in one particular position. But bodies are made to move. We think Active MRI will be a valuable tool in augmenting traditional, static MRI tests,” said Boutin. "Our next step is to validate the technology by using it on patients with symptoms of wrist instability," added Chaudhari. "We also want to use Active-MRI to study sex distinctions in musculoskeletal conditions, including why women tend to be more susceptible to hand osteoarthritis and carpal tunnel ... Read more

Ultrasound Helps Guide Arthritis Treatment…

Scottish researchers have discovered that integrating musculoskeletal ultrasound into disease activity evaluations significantly helped guide and inform treatment decision-making in early rheumatoid arthritis. According to James Dale, MBChB, and ... Read more

Advanced Visualization Software for CT and MRI Now …

Medical software company Object Research Systems, Inc. (ORS) located in Montreal, QC, recently announced the availability of ORS Visual LITE (Free), advanced visualization software for CT and MRI imaging data. The free software is available for ... Read more

MRI Could Help in MS Diagnosis
 …

Based on a recent study, researchers have managed to find a way of attuning magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning so that they may effectively assist in diagnosing multiple sclerosis (MS) earlier in order to track its progression. The research, ... Read more

Blood Vessels in Tumors Targeted by Injectable Gene …

Researchers from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, MO have recently developed an injectable viral vector that targets blood vessels of tumors, paving the way for new possibilities for gene therapy and its fight against cancer ... Read more

First Cancer Operation Room with Navigator Created…

A group of researchers from Gregorio Marañón Hospital, the company GMV and the Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M) have launched the very first cancer operation room equipped with a navigator, thus enabling an increased intraoperative radiotherapy safety. The image-guided system, displayed at Gregorio Marañón Hospital, authorizes real-time interaction with the body of the patient (with its different tissues and cancer) in addition to the radiotherapy applicator used to radiate the tumor site. This advancement will be employed in the surgery of cancers treated with intraoperative radiotherapy in the promise of achieving greater precision and accuracy in the radiation of potentially cancerous tissues following the excision of the tumor. The installation of this new equipment has involved a total restructuring of the operating room. The new room, reinforced for this kind of procedure, integrates high-definition screens of high diagnostic quality to visualize the image of the patient in 3-D, three video monitoring cameras and a cohort of eight infrared cameras for real-time navigation positioned in the area of the surgery that allows the surgeon to capture the movement of objects throughout the whole process. This technology shares the same values of movement capture that are used in cinema and in video games to transfer the movement of actors to animated characters. Physicians will now have a 3-D illustration of the patient and the applicator that performs the radiation so that it can be guided into the patient through the high-definition screens set in the operating room. The placement of the applicator over the tumor bed is observed so that only tissues with cancerous remnants or are at risk of turning cancerous is predetermined in each patient and are consequently radiated. Moreover, the area, the depth and the dose that any tissue such as skin, bone, muscle, intestines or bladder will receive can be predetermined and adjusted on-site and healthy tissues can be checked for any additional risk. This device, constructed by scientists within the skeleton of research projects funded by the Autonomous Region of Madrid, the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness and FEDER funds, makes the Madrid hospital an international point of reference in technological innovation and the application of research results to daily clinical practice. Dr. Javier Pascau, professor in the Bioengineering and Aerospace Engineering Department at the UC3M and part of the BIIG research group led by Dr. Manuel Desco, is the head researcher of various research projects that include this development. “The system employs multiple cameras to locate objects in three-dimensional scenarios like the intraoperative radiotherapy applicator. This information is sent to the planning system, which updates the real position of the applicator over the CAT (Computed Axial Tomography) of the patient and shows it on the screen. Thanks to this navigation system, the oncologist will be able to compare the current position and orientation of the applicator to the one previously planned and, if necessary, repeat the estimation of the distribution of the dose to adjust the treatment to the actual surgical scenario. The precision of the system, the first stereotactic navigator available in the field of intraoperative radiotherapy, has been evaluated by university researchers and was recently published in Physics in Medicine and Biology,” he explains. Intraoperative radiotherapy is an anti-tumor treatment which, following the excision of the cancer, enables physicians to radiate the surrounding areas affected by the tumor or parts that could not be terminated with a high degree of accuracy. Through this process, it is believed that the cancer then will not replicate. Additionally, "another advantage of this procedure is that all tumors can receive this treatment, although most of the ones that have been treated, and with very convincing results, were cancers of the digestive system and sarcomas," states head of the Oncology Department at Gregorio Marañón Hospital, Dr. Felipe Calvo. Moreover, Calvo asserts that intelligent systems, like the intraoperative radiotherapy radiance simulator, developed and originated by Marañón Hospital researchers and practitioners and the company GMV, and this new navigator "will make it possible to cut treatment time thanks to the use of large single doses on a very well-defined tumor, protecting healthy tissue at the same time. Intraoperative radiotherapy does not compete with but instead complements chemotherapy and the administration of biological medicines." Intraoperative radiotherapy has been integrated into improvements in laparoscopic oncological surgery with clear benefits for the patient, such as the reduction of the biological affect of the postoperative period from between 4 and 7 days to 48 hours, and a procedure which requires less invasive surgery. In premature breast cancer, instead of lasting six to eight weeks in the case of standard treatment, radiation therapy treatment and surgery can be done in only 24 ... Read more

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