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Optical Brain Scanner Ventures into Areas Other Brain Scanners Can't…

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Based on new research at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, researchers have further enhanced a brain scanning technology that follows what the brain is doing by illuminating dozens of microscopic LED lights on the head. This new age of neuroimaging is a wide improvement from previous methods and approaches; and avoids all radiation exposure and hulking magnets other scanners require. The new optical approach to brain scanning is ideally suited for ... Read more

Protein Helps Mice Survive from Radiation Exposure…

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Based on a new study conducted by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine, experimenting with a molecular pathway that dictates how intestinal cells react to stress can in fact aid mice in surviving an otherwise fatal dose of ... Read more

Autophagic Activation with Nimotuzumab Enhances …

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A study recently published in the May 2014 issue of Experimental Biology and Medicine sought to determine whether an EGFR-targeted therapy in accordance with chemo-radiotherapy can in fact improve local tumor control effectively, as opposed to ... Read more

Radiation Considered Best Possible Treatment for Rare …

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Based on a Kaiser Permanente study published online in JAMA Dermatology, radiation treatment could help lead to a decrease in the recurrence of Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare and aggressive skin cancer, while chemotherapy appears to have no lasting impact or effect on the disease's recurrence or patient survival. Kaiser Permanente can carry out transformational health research in part due to it having the largest private patient-centered electronic health system in the world. The institution's electronic health record system, Kaiser Permanente HealthConnect®, safely connects 9.1 million patients to more than 16,000 physicians in almost 600 medical offices and 37 hospitals. It also links Kaiser Permanente's research scientists to one of the most wide-ranging collections of longitudinal medical data available, smoothing the progress of studies and important medical discoveries that shape the future of health and care delivery for patients and the medical community. The study showcases one of the biggest single-institution datasets on Merkel cell carcinoma, which is contracted in approximately 1,500 people in the United States year round. Most such cancers come about on the sun-exposed skin of Caucasian males and are usually first diagnosed at age 75. Using the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Cancer Registry, the researchers discovered that out of 218 cases of Kaiser Permanente patients who had Merkel cell carcinoma, those who had radiation treatment had a 70 percent lower risk of disease recurrence whereas those treated with chemotherapy did not appear to have any impact on recurrence or survival. "We used our database to show what characteristics impact recurrence and survival in this very rare cancer. The electronic records allowed us to identify patients with Merkel cell carcinoma, see how they were diagnosed and treated, and then follow them over time to see how their care affected their outcomes," said the study's lead author Maryam M. Asgari, MD, MPH, of the Kaiser Permanente Division of Research. Using an electronic health record system, Kaiser Permanente HealthConnect®, authorized the researchers to assess the relationships between cancer recurrence and survival with demographic information (age, sex, race, immunosuppression) and tumor porperties (extent, size and location), in addition to cancer work-ups (pathologic lymph node evaluation, imaging) and treatments (surgery, radiation and chemotherapy). The study results also revealed that immunosuppression and more advanced tumors were linked with worse survival rates related to Merkel cell carcinoma, and that pathological assessment of the patient's lymph nodes also had a considerable influence on results. Asgari commented that the success of different work-up and treatment procedures has been hard to compare for rare cancers. "This research should help dermatologists and oncologists in caring for their patients with Merkel cell carcinomas," she ... Read more

Stem Cells Filled with Herpes Used to Terminate Brain …

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Based on a recent study, Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI) scientists at Massachusetts General Hospital may have discovered a possible solution for how to effectively kill tumor cells using cancer-killing viruses. The researchers note that ... Read more

Clot-busting Treatment and New MRI Analysis Determine …

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Researchers from the John Hopkins University have reported that they have recently developed a predictive method that can determine, with 95 percent accuracy, which stroke victims will serve to benefit from intravenous clot-busting drugs and which ... Read more

Combined Approach Developed to Map Atherosclerosis …

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A new technique enables calcified and constricted blood vessels to be visualized with micrometer accuracy, and can be utilized to create containers for targeted drug delivery. Within the project "NO-stress," materials researchers from the Medical Faculty of the University of Basel merged state of the art imaging techniques to visualize and measure the constrictions caused by atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, are linked with plaque formation and the most common cause of death around the world. Yet, unlike vessels and other soft tissues, the plaque formed offer a strong contrast in X-rays, as known from bone. Thus far, it has been arduous or even impracticable to distinguish soft tissues in the direct vicinity of calcifications using X-rays. A team of researchers from laboratories in three European countries, led by Bert Müller (Biomaterials Science Center at University of Basel), have designed and developed a procedure that is predicated on the mixture of hard X-ray tomography and proven histology methods, to visualize the vessels constricted by atherosclerosis. The data regarding the morphology of the constricted vessels is utilized to reproduce blood flow and discover related shear stresses. The shear stress is considerably enhanced at the constrictions and makes up the basis for the development of specialized nano-containers for the targeted and local delivery of vasodilation drugs. The new technique molds and merges known approaches and is not only appropriate for the three-dimensional characterization of atherosclerotic blood vessels but also for any other combination of strongly and weakly X-ray absorbing species including cartilage and bone. It makes good use of standard X-ray absorption and, additionally, of X-ray phase contrast measurements, which are for instance available through grating interferometry. As the phase contrast is much less reliant on the atomic number of the constituents than the absorption contrast, the soft tissues in the neighborhood of hard tissues become much more easily and effectively visualized. In short, the authors showcase that strongly calcified arteries are methodically characterized by the combination of the non-destructive tomography measurements in X-ray absorption and phase contrast modes, and proven histology techniques. The project "NO-stress" is funded within the National Research Programme NRP 62 "Smart Materials" by the Swiss National Science ... Read more

CAA Recommends MRI Scanning for All-Metal Hip Implant …

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A U.S. consumer advocacy agency (CAA), a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan can help identify premature failure of all-metal hip implants before symptoms occur. The US Drug Watchdog (Washington DC, USA), a CAA established for victims of recalled drugs, are showing concern for recipients of an all-metal hip implant, and premature failures that could spur additional medical issues such as metallosis. “We do not want any recipient of an all-metal hip implant to get left behind with no settlement if their all-metal hip implant has prematurely failed all individuals who now have a cobalt and chromium hip [should] get an MRI for conclusive proof of the condition of their hip implant. If there is tissue inflammation in the area of the stem, or the ball, and cup of the hip implant it is a very good indication of a premature failure," said the US Drug Watchdog’s spokesperson. Moreover, according to a new study by researchers from the Hospital for Special Surgery (New York, NY, USA), metal-on-metal (MoM) hip implants can bring about inflammation of the joint lining (synovitis) way before symptoms begin to show, and MRI can be utilized to effectively detec this inflammation. The study is to be featured in an upcoming issue of the Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery and shows that MRI can be employed to detect implants that are going to fail before people become symptomatic. The overall objective of the US Drug Watchdog is to inform and notify US consumers about deadly US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug recalls, and recalled defective medical ... Read more

New Sensor for Low Cost Medical Imaging Developed…

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A team of researchers from the University of Surrey, have identified a new kind of light sensor that could soon pave the way for medical and security imaging byway of low cost cameras. The team's research has gone on to be published in the journal Nature's Scientific Reports. The researchers developed a novel 'multispectral' light senor that has the ability to identify the full spectrum of light, from ultra-violet (UV) rays, to visible, and near infrared light. In addition, near infrared light can be utilized to conduct non-invasive medical procedures and practices, such as measuring the oxygen level tissue and detecting tumors. Moreover, infrared light is also extensively used in security camera systems and for quality control in the agriculture and food industries. Researchers believe that having a single low cost near infrared system, in accordance with standard imaging, opens up whole new doors of possibilities. "Until now specialist light sensors have been limited in the kinds of light they can detect, with multiple sensors required to measure different ranges of the light spectrum, significantly increasing cost," said lead researcher from the University of Surrey's Advanced Technology Institute, Dr. Richard Curry. "This new technology could allow surgeons to 'see' inside tissue to find tumors prior to surgery as well as equip consumer products, such as cameras and mobile phones, with night imaging options. This is useful for capturing quality pictures in the dark, and may eventually enable parents to simply monitor a child's blood or tissue oxygenation level via a smartphone camera which could be linked to healthcare professionals," he added. Moreover, the sensors themselves are quite flexible and be manufactured with little cost, utilizing the same laser-printers found in homes and offices. And unlike other sensors, do not need specific manufacturing ... Read more

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